About Smart Cards : Introduction : Standards

Smart Card Standards

A number of standards and specifications are relevant for smart card implementations, with some focused on industry-specific applications. A summary of the standards bodies and different smart card standards and specifications is presented below.*

International Standards Organization (ISO)/International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards

ISO/IEC is one of the worldwide standard-setting bodies for technology, including plastic cards. The primary standards for smart cards are ISO/IEC 7816, ISO/IEC 14443, ISO/IEC 15693 and ISO/IEC 7501.

A basic summary of ISO/IEC 7816, ISO/IEC 14443 and ISO/IEC 15693 can be found in the Smart Card Alliance report, Contactless Technology for Secure Physical Access.

Federal Information Processing Standard 201 – FIPS 201

As a result of Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12 (HSPD-12), issued by President George W. Bush on August 27, 2004, NIST published Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 201 (FIPS 201), Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors, on February 25, 2005. FIPS 201 provides the specifications for a standard Federal smart ID card, called the PIV card, that must be used for both physical and logical access and can be used for other applications as determined by individual agencies. The PIV card is a smart card with both contact and contactless interfaces. Government agencies are currently implementing FIPS 201-compliant systems.

NIST has also issued a number of special publications with additional specifications for PIV card implementations. Published specifications are available at http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/index.html. Draft special publications are available at http://csrc.nist.gov/piv-program/index.html.

Other Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)

FIPS standards are developed by the Computer Security Division within NIST. FIPS standards are designed to protect Federal computer and telecommunications systems. The following FIPS standards apply to smart card technology and pertain to digital signature standards, advanced encryption standards, and security requirements for cryptographic modules.

Digital Signatures

Advanced Encryption Standards

Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standards

ANSI recommends standards directed to the needs of the U.S. and supervises standards-making activities. It does not write or develop standards itself. Thus, in the U.S., any group that participates in ISO must first participate in ANSI. The International Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS) serves as ANSI’s Technical Advisory Group (TAG). Working groups within INCITS – such as B10 (Identification Cards and related devices), T6 (Radio Frequency Identification Technology) and M1 (biometrics) contribute directly to ISO groups (for example, the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1/Subcommittee 17 (JTC 1/SC 17)).

GlobalPlatform

GlobalPlatform (GP) is an international, non-profit association. Its mission is to establish, maintain and drive adoption of standards to enable an open and interoperable infrastructure for smart cards, devices and systems that simplifies and accelerates development, deployment and management of applications across industries. As of January 2002, over 20 million GlobalPlatform smart cards were in circulation across the world, with an additional 200 million GSM cards that use GlobalPlatform technology for Over-The-Air (OTA) application download.

Common Criteria

Common Criteria (CC) applies to security evaluation for IT products and systems. CC’s goal is to provide a common or standardized way to evaluate IT products and services, thus producing a certain assurance level for those products and systems. CC was developed by organizations that sponsored previous criteria from the United States, Canada, and Europe. These organizations came together and developed the Common Criteria in 1993. In 1996, Common Criteria v1.0 was produced; in 1998, v2.0 was produced; and in 1999, the most recent version, v2.1, was produced. CC v2.1 complies with ISO/IEC 15448.

International Civil Aviation Organization

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is responsible for issuing guidance on the standardization and specifications for Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTD) – i.e., passports, visas, and travel documents. ICAO has published a new specification for electronic passports that uses a contactless smart chip in the passport to securely store information on the passport holder’s data page.

International Airline and Transportation Association (IATA)

The IATA develops standards for recommendation to the airline and transportation industry. IATA has formed a task force to develop interoperability standards for smart card-based ticketless travel. Its mission is to ensure easy and convenient negotiation of electronic airline tickets.

G-8 Health Standards

The G-8 countries have come together to develop a standard format for populating data on a health card. This standard attempts to create interoperability across health cards from the G-8 countries. It addresses file formats, data placement on the card, and use of digital certificates in health care.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 (Public Law 104-191)

This law states that the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) is to adopt national standards for implementing a secure electronic health transaction system. Examples of these transactions include: claims, enrollment, eligibility, payment, and coordination of benefits. The goal of HIPAA is to create a secure, cost-effective means for individuals to efficiently accomplish electronic health care transactions. HHS has designated the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services the responsible entity for enforcing HIPAA. All applicable entities must be in compliance by October 16, 2003.

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Standards

The mobile phone industry has several telecommunication standards, but the predominant one globally is GSM (also often called PCS in the United States). The GSM standard uses smart cards called Subscriber Identification Modules (SIMs) that are configured with information essential to authenticating a GSM-compliant mobile phone, thus allowing a phone to receive service whenever the phone is within coverage of a suitable network. In mid-2006 there were more than 2 billion phones around the world using GSM/SIM technology. (See GSM statistics at http://www.gsmworld.com.) This standard is managed by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute.

EMV 2000

To expedite the issuance of globally interoperable financial smart cards, Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) published the first version of standard card and transaction terminal specifications in 1995. The specifications are built on the ISO/IEC 7816 standard and serve as an expansion to accommodate debit and credit transactions. Version 4.1 was published in June 2004.

Personal Computer/Smart Card (PC/SC) Workgroup

The PC/SC Workgroup was formed in 1996 and included Schlumberger Electronic Transactions, Bull CP8, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, and other leading vendors. This group has developed open specifications for integrating smart cards with personal computers. The specifications are platform-independent and based on existing industry standards. They are designed to enable application developers to create smart card-based secure network applications for banking, health care, corporate security, and electronic commerce. The specifications include cryptographic functionality and secure storage, programming interfaces for smart card readers and PCs, and a high-level application interface for application development. The specifications are based on the ISO/IEC 7816 standard and support EMV and GSM application standards.

OpenCard™ Framework

The OpenCard Framework is a set of guidelines announced by IBM, Netscape, NCI, and Sun Microsystems for integrating smart cards with network computers. The guidelines are based on open standards and provide an architecture and a set of application program interfaces (APIs) that enable application developers and service providers to build and deploy smart card solutions on any OpenCard-compliant network computer. Through the use of a smart card, an OpenCard-compliant system will enable access to personalized data and services from any network computer and dynamically download from the Internet all device drivers that are necessary to communicate with the smart card. By providing a high-level interface which can support multiple smart card types, the OpenCard Framework is intended to enable vendor-independent card interoperability. The system incorporates Public Key Cryptography Standard (PKCS) – 11 and is expandable to include other public key mechanisms.

American Public Transportation Association

The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) Uniform Transit Fare Standard (UTFS) specifications are currently under development. A set of documents should be available soon defining the Regional Interoperability Standard (RIS) for electronic transit fare payments. The APTA UTFS goal is to provide a series of documents that allows industry to create an open architecture payment environment and that facilitates the integration of independent transit payment systems.

Biometric Standards

Many new secure ID system implementations are using both biometrics and smart cards to improve the security and privacy of the ID system.